Wednesday, 16 December 2009

Millennium Development Goals




About the Campaign

End poverty by 2015. This is the historic promise 189 world leaders made at the United Nations Millennium Summit in 2000 when they signed onto the Millennium Declaration and agreed to meet the "Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are an eight-point road map with measurable targets and clear deadlines for improving the lives of the world's poorest people. World leaders have agreed to achieve the MDGs by 2015.

It’s up to us to make sure leaders follow through on these commitments. The "United Nations Millennium Campaign":http://www.endpoverty2015.org supports and inspires people from around the world to take action in support of the Millennium Development Goals. Join the UN Millennium Campaign and be part of the generation that puts an end to poverty.


Goal #1
End Hunger & Extreme Poverty

Over the years, we've been inundated with the statistics and the pictures of poverty around the world-so much so that many people in both the North and South have come to accept it as an unfortunate but unalterable state of affairs. The truth, however, is that things have changed in recent years. The world today is more prosperous than it ever has been. The technological advances we have seen in recent years have created encouraging new opportunities to improve economies and reduce hunger.

The targets

Goal 1 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015:
1. Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day.
2. Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger.

Did you know?

Did you know that in our world today :
* One third of deaths – some 18 million people a year or 50,000 per day – are due to poverty-related causes. That’s 270 million people since 1990, the majority women and children, roughly equal to the population of the US. (Reality of Aid 2004)
* Every year more than 10 million children die of hunger and preventable diseases – that’s over 30,000 per day and one every 3 seconds. (80 Million Lives, 2003 / Bread for the World / UNICEF / World Health Organization)

Achieving the Goals

Doctors at a local health clinic in Brazil learned the reason their patients who regularly came in with health problems related to poverty stopped coming was due to a national anti-hunger program that gave children three meals a day.
“It was simply that these children were starting to eat better,” says Nélia Maria Cruz, the clinic’s chief.
The children were among thousands who have benefited from Fome Zero (“Zero Hunger”), a national effort to eliminate hunger in Brazil.
The program’s formula is simple: Give each Brazilian the opportunity to have at least three meals a day. It might not seem like such a bold challenge but approximately one quarter of Brazil’s 170 million people currently live below the poverty line.
To meet the immediate needs of everyone who goes hungry in the country, the government needs to provide emergency help to 11 million families, according to official estimates. At the same time, the effort must include long-term actions to enable the population to manage on its own, so that in the future every family is able to buy its own food,by Rogerio Waldrigues Galindo from Perspectives in Health.



Goal #2
Universal Education

Every human being should have the opportunity to make a better life for themselves. Unfortunately, too many children in the world today grow up without this chance, because they are denied their basic right to even attend primary school. A sustainable end to world poverty as we know it, as well as the path to peace and security, require that citizens in every country are empowered to make positive choices and provide for themselves and their families.

The Targets

Goal 2 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Ensure that all boys and girls complete a full course of primary schooling.

Did You Know?

* One in four adults in the developing world – 872 million people – is illiterate. (Oxfam UK – Education Now Campaign)
* More than 100 million children remain out of school. (Source:UNFPA)
* 46% of girls in the world's poorest countries have no access to primary education. (Source:ActionAid)
* More than 1 in 4 adults cannot read or write: 2/3 is women. (Source:ActionAid)
* Universal primary education would cost $10 billion a year – that's half what Americans spend on ice cream. (Source:ActionAid)
* Young people who have completed primary education are less than half as likely to contract HIV as those missing an education. Universal primary education would prevent 700,000 cases of HIV each year – about 30% all new infections in this age group. (Source:Oxfam)

Achieving the goals

With the help of donor funds and debt relief, in 2002 Tanzania was able to make primary education free for all Tanzanian children. Almost overnight, an estimated 1.6 million children enrolled in school and by 2003, 3.1 million additional children were attending primary education.
Students like Winifred Kiyabo were finally able to attend schools and create a future for them, “When I was nine my father died, that’s when my problems started. My mother didn’t have any money to pay for my school fees, and the teachers used to send me home from school. But now I’m happy… school fees have been abolished, and no one is stopping me coming to school.” Uganda, Malawi, Kenya, and Zambia all have been able to eliminate school fees providing the next generation with the knowledge to succeed in life.

Goal #3
Gender Equity

Poverty has a woman's face. Global prosperity and peace will only be achieved once the entire world's people are empowered to order their own lives and provide for themselves and their families. Societies where women are more equal stand a much greater chance of achieving the Millennium Goals by 2015. Every single Goal is directly related to women's rights, and societies were women are not afforded equal rights as men can never achieve development in a sustainable manner.

The targets

Goal 3 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Eliminate gender disparity in primary and secondary education preferably by 2005, and at all levels by 2015.

Did You Know?

* Of the 1.3 billion people living in poverty around the world, 70% are women. (Source: World Revolution)
* Women do about 66% of the world's work in return for less than 5% of its income. (Source: Women's International Network)
* In the least developed countries nearly twice as many women over age 15 are illiterate compared to men. (Source: UNFPA)
* Two-thirds of children denied primary education are girls, and 75% of the world’s 876 million illiterate adults are women. (Source: AskWoman)
* Women work two-thirds of the world's working hours, produce half of the world's food, and yet earn only 10% of the world's income and own less than 1% of the world's property. (Source: World Development Indicators, 1997, Womankind Worldwide)

Achieving the Goals

In 2005, Mozambique signed a new law that gave women equal rights as members of a household. Women finally received the legal right to divorce, create pre-nuptial agreements and inherit property.
The Family Law legally redefined the status of women and overhauled marriage laws.
The law also limited marriage to women of 18 years of age and older. Men were now no longer the defacto head of household and women are able to work outside the home without acquiring permission and can buy and manage financial assets. Members of the Family Law coalition are now teaching leaders how to practice the new laws in ways that will not undermine traditional views of the family.Read the full story from Oxfam


Goal #4
Child Health

One of the darkest characteristics of poverty is that is seems to prey on the vulnerable and defenseless. In low-income countries, one out of every 10 children dies before the age of five. In wealthier nations, this number is only one out of 143.

The Targets

Goal 4 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five.

Did You Know?

* In our world today nearly 11 million children under the age of 5 die in the world every year – well over 1,200 every hour most from easily preventable or treatable causes. (Source: Why do the Millennium Development Goals matter? Brochure)

Achieving the Goals

With the help of donor aid and UN organizations, the Eritrean government commenced an aggressive approach to reducing child mortality increasing the number of children vaccinated from 9.6% in 1991 to 76% in 2002.
The Eritrean government used the method of Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI), a holistic way of looking at the life of infants and young children. Over 500 additional health workers were trained in IMCI methods to
oth prevent and cure diseases, focusing on the well-being of the entire child. In addition, they launched an aggressive vaccination campaign.
Even with this rapid progress, the government is not content. “We need to work very hard to reduce it even more,” said Zemui Alemu, director of the Family and Community Health Division at the Eritrean Ministry of Health.
UN Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs

Goal #5
Maternal Health

Many people consider the day their child was born the happiest day in their life. In the world's wealthier countries, that is. In poorer countries, the day a child born is all too often the day its mother dies. The lifetime risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth in Africa is 1 in 22, while it is 1 in 120 in Asia and 1 in 7,300 in developed countries.

The Targets

Goal 5 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio.
* Achieve, by 2015, universal access to reproductive health.

Did You Know?

More than half a million women die in pregnancy and childbirth every year - that's one death every minute. Of these deaths, 99 per cent are in developing countries. The lifetime risk of dying in pregnancy and childbirth in Africa is 1 in 22, while it is 1 in 120 in Asia and 1 in 7,300 in developed countries.(Source:UNFPA)
# Only 28 in 100 women giving birth are attended by trained health personnel in the least developed countries. (Source:ActionAid)

Achieving the Goals

In the mid-1990s, the Honduran government adopted a four point plan to fight maternal deaths. The nation also initiated a monitoring system to determine the cause of death in all recorded maternal mortality cases. Five years later, Honduras had reduced its maternal mortality rate by half.Read the full story from the Global Monitoring Report.

Goal #6
Combat HIV/AIDS and other diseases

Malaria, together with HIV/AIDS and TB, is one of the major public health challenges undermining development in the poorest countries in the world. Malaria kills an African child every 30 seconds. Many children who survive an episode of severe malaria may suffer from learning impairments or brain damage. Pregnant women and their unborn children are also particularly vulnerable to malaria, which is a major cause of perinatal mortality, low birth weight and maternal anaemia.

The Targets

Goal 6 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Halt and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS.

Halt and begin to reverse the incidence of malaria and other major diseases.

Did You Know?

* In sub-Saharan Africa, there are currently 4.1 million people with AIDS who are in immediate need of life-saving anti-retroviral drugs. (Source:WTO)
* Currently more than 11 million children in Africa have lost at least one parent to HIV/AIDS; that number is expected to reach 20 million by 2010. (Source:UNAIDS/UNICEF)
* There are 42 million people living with HIV and AIDS worldwide. It is a global emergency claiming approximately 8,000 lives every day in some of the poorest countries. (Source:Oxfam)
* 1 in every 100 people worldwide is HIV positive: One third of them are aged 15-24.(Source:ActionAid UK)
* Approximately 40% of the world's population-mostly those living in the world's poorest countries-is at risk of contracting malaria. Malaria causes more than 300 million acute illnesses and at least one million deaths annually.

Achieving the Goals

Rose Rwabasinga, a widow living with HIV/AIDS in Rwanda sold her car and land to support her family. In 2004 with the support of international donors, the government of Rwanda began providing free antiretroviral drugs to people living with HIV/AIDS. "It was a catastrophe! I had nothing left to sell," remembers the mother of three, "If the free drugs had come just a little later, I could certainly have died."

Goal #7
Environmental Sustainability

Reducing poverty and achieving sustained development must be done in conjunction with a healthy planet. The Millennium Goals recognize that environmental sustainability is part of global economic and social well-being. Unfortunately exploitation of natural resources such as forests, land, water, and fisheries-often by the powerful few-have caused alarming changes in our natural world in recent decades, often harming the most vulnerable people in the world who depend on natural resources for their livelihood.

The Targets

Goal 7 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources.
* Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water.
* Achieve significant improvement in lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, by 2020.

Did You Know?

In our world today around 2.5 billion people do not have access to improved sanitation and some 1.2 billion people do not have access to an improved source of water. (Source: Why do the Millennium Development Goals matter? Brochure).

Achieving the Goals

In 2007 Madagascar’s government established 15 new conservation areas covering over 2.65 million acres of wildlife. The new parks will protect several threatened ecosystems including wetlands and rain forests.
Read the full story from National Geographica

Goal #8
Global Partnership

The Millennium Goals represent a global partnership for development. The deal makes clear that it is the primary responsibility of poor countries to work towards achieving the first seven Goals. They must do their part to ensure greater accountability to citizens and efficient use of resources. But for poor countries to achieve the first seven Goals, it is absolutely critical that rich countries deliver on their end of the bargain with more and more effective aid, more sustainable debt relief and fairer trade rules, well in advance of 2015.

The Targets

Goal 8 of the Millennium Development Goals sets out by the year 2015 to:
* Develop further an open trading and financial system that is rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory. Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction—nationally and internationally.
* Address the least developed countries’ special needs. This includes tariff- and quota-free access for their exports; enhanced debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries; cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous official development assistance for countries committed to poverty reduction.
* Address the special needs of landlocked and Small Island developing States.
* Deal comprehensively with developing countries’ debt problems through national and international measures to make debt sustainable in the long term
* In cooperation with the developing countries, develop decent and productive work for youth.
* In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries.
* In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies—especially information and communications technologies.

Did You Know?

The United Nations estimates that unfair trade rules deny poor countries $700 billion every year. Less than 0.01% of this could save the sight of 30 million people. (Source:ChristianAid)
In 1970, 22 of the world's richest countries pledged to spend 0.7% of their national income on aid. 34 years later, only 5 countries have kept that promise. The UK hasn't. (Source: Save the Children)
# The poorest 49 countries make up 10% of the world's population but account for only 0.4% of world trade. Their share has halved since 1980. (Source:ChristianAid)

Achieving the Goals

Debt relief has helped millions in developing countries provide for their people.
Nigeria is using $750 million in debt savings from 2006 to train and recruit new teachers, while Cameroon is debt savings to launch a national HIV/AIDS plan for prevention, education, testing and mother-to- child transmission abatement.

2 comments:

observer said...

ye itna lamba article padhne se aadmi sara MDG kyun na padh le??? article should b analytical not just a compilation

Anonymous said...

Good post, adding it to my blog now, thanks. :)